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Proceedings Article

Defect detection in apples by means of x-ray imaging

[+] Author Affiliations
Thomas F. Schatzki, Ron P. Haff, Richard Young, Ilkay Can, Lan Chau Le, Natsuko Toyofuku

USDA Agricultural Research Service (USA)

Proc. SPIE 2907, Optics in Agriculture, Forestry, and Biological Processing II, 176 (December 18, 1996); doi:10.1117/12.262857
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From Conference Volume 2907

  • Optics in Agriculture, Forestry, and Biological Processing II
  • George E. Meyer; James A. DeShazer
  • Boston, MA | November 18, 1996

abstract

The possibility of using x-ray radiographic imaging for detecting intenal defects in apples has been investigated. Four hundred to seven hundred each of five Washington State cultivars [Red and Golden Delicious (RD< GD), Fuji (FJ), Granny Smith (GS) and Braeburn (BR)], both defect free and with assorted internal defects (bruises, senescence browning, rot, insect damage and watercore), were imaged using film and on-line line-scanning x-ray equipment. Both axial (stem-to-calyx) and radial images were obtained. The resulting images were presented to human operators, both as still shots and by scrolling them across the screen of a PC at rates approximating that of a commercial packing line. Good recognition [greater than 50% recognized, less than 10% false positives] could generally be obtained on selected cultivars when still shots were inspected. Apple orientation was required for recognition of watercore and rot. However, recognition rapidly fell off as scrolling speeds across the screens approached commercial rates. It is concluded that such inspection may be possible using machine recognition, but probably cannot be achieved using human operators.

© (1996) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Citation

Thomas F. Schatzki ; Ron P. Haff ; Richard Young ; Ilkay Can ; Lan Chau Le, et al.
"Defect detection in apples by means of x-ray imaging", Proc. SPIE 2907, Optics in Agriculture, Forestry, and Biological Processing II, 176 (December 18, 1996); doi:10.1117/12.262857; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.262857


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