Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Proceedings Article

A Reflection Grating Spectrometer for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Space Observatory: Design and Calculated Performance

[+] Author Affiliations
Michael C. Hettrick

Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (United States)

Steven M. Kahn

University of California (United States)

Proc. SPIE 0597, X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, 291 (July 14, 1986); doi:10.1117/12.966594
Text Size: A A A
From Conference Volume 0597

  • X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy
  • J. Leonard Culhane
  • Cannes, France | November 25, 1985

abstract

We present a spectrometer design candidate for the X-ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) observatory, being planned by the European Space Agency (ESA) as a long-lived large-area array of telescopes. The science requirement of moderate resolution (E/ΔE ~ 100) spectroscopy in a two octave region (0.5-2 KeV) with extremely high throughput (effective area > 500 cm2) results in the use of grazing incidence reflection gratings. Due to the low image quality of the telescopes (~ 1 minute of arc), the grating dispersion must be maximized by use of the classical grating mount in which the spectrum is dispersed within the plane of incident radiation. Due to the small field of view afforded by the x-ray telescopes, the gratings must be situated in the converging beam at the exit of the telescope. A spectrometer module consists of a thin-foil conical mirror telescope, a stack of plane varied-space reflection gratings and an imaging proportional counter. This system is analyzed on the basis of dispersion, geometric aberrations and efficiency. At a spectral resolution of 0.15 Å, a twenty module XMM would attain an average effective area of ix, 900 cm2, reaching twice this value at the peak wavelength (15 Å). Similar throughput is obtained in second order centered at 7.5 Å, the two spectral orders separated by the non-dispersive energy resolution of the proportional counter. Continuous spectra are obtained in the 6-25 Å band (0.5-2 KeV), and can be extended to 45 Å if desired by tuning of the grating. The instrument sensitivity is sufficient to allow the first spectral detection of soft x-ray features in external galaxies, with access to an estimated population of several hundred active galactic nuclei. Such observations will expand vastly the roles feasible for spectroscopy in x-ray astrophysics, marking the beginning of a new era in space astronomy.

© (1986) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Citation

Michael C. Hettrick and Steven M. Kahn
"A Reflection Grating Spectrometer for the X-Ray Multi-Mirror (XMM) Space Observatory: Design and Calculated Performance", Proc. SPIE 0597, X-Ray Instrumentation in Astronomy, 291 (July 14, 1986); doi:10.1117/12.966594; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.966594


Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).

Figures

Tables

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.