In this paper we describe a new nondestructive evaluation (NDE) technique called Compton Imaging Tomography (CIT) for reconstructing the complete three-dimensional internal structure of an object, based on the registration of multiple two-dimensional Compton-scattered x-ray images of the object. CIT provides high resolution and sensitivity with virtually any material, including lightweight structures and organics, which normally pose problems in conventional x-ray computed tomography because of low contrast. The CIT technique requires only one-sided access to the object, has no limitation on the object's size, and can be applied to high-resolution real-time in situ NDE of large aircraft/spacecraft structures and components. Theoretical and experimental results will be presented.© (2011) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.