AGILE is a small space mission of the Italian Space Agency (ASI) devoted to astrophysics in the gamma-ray energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV, and in the X-ray band 15 keV - 45 keV. The AGILE Payload is composed of three instruments: a gamma-ray imager based on a Tungsten-Silicon Tracker (ST), for observations in the gamma ray energy range 30 MeV - 50 GeV, a Silicon based X-ray detector, Super-Agile (SA), for imaging in the range 15 keV - 40 keV and a CsI(Tl) Mini-Calorimeter (MCAL) that detects gamma rays or particle energy deposits between 300 keV and 200 MeV. The payload is currently fully integrated and the satellite is expected to be launched in the second half of 2006. MCAL is composed of 30 CsI(Tl) scintillator detectors with the shape of a bar with photodiode readout at both ends, arranged in two orthogonal layers. MCAL can work both as a slave of the ST and as an independent gamma-ray detector for the detection of transients and Gamma Ray Bursts. In this paper a detailed description of MCAL is presented together with the first on ground calibration results.© (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.