Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Proceedings Article

Development of four-dimensional imaging spectrometers (4D-IS)

[+] Author Affiliations
Nahum Gat, Gordon Scriven, John Garman, Ming De Li, Jingyi Zhang

Opto-Knowledge Systems, Inc.

Proc. SPIE 6302, Imaging Spectrometry XI, 63020M (September 01, 2006); doi:10.1117/12.678082
Text Size: A A A
From Conference Volume 6302

  • Imaging Spectrometry XI
  • Sylvia S. Shen; Paul E. Lewis
  • San Diego, California, USA | August 13, 2006


The incentive for the 4D-IS concept was driven by the need to adequately resolve all four dimensions of data (2D spatial, spectral, and temporal) with a single, radiometrically calibrated sensor. Very fast changing phenomena are of interest; including missile exhaust plumes, missile intercept events, and lightning strikes, hypervelocity impacts, etc. Present sensor capabilities are limited to imaging sensors (producing spatial image), spectrometers (that produce a mean signature over an entire field of view with no spatial resolution), radiometers (producing in-band radiance over an entire FOV), or imaging spectrometers (or hyperspectral sensors, tunable filter type, pushbroom scanning, imaging Fourier Transform, Fabry-Perot, or CTHIS type) that produce a data cube containing spatial/spectral information but suffer from the fact that the cube acquisition process may take longer time than the temporal scale during which the event changes. The Computer Tomography Imaging Spectrometer (CTIS) is another sensor capable of 4D data collection. However, the inversion process for CTIS is computationally extensive and data processing time may be an issue in real-time applications. Hence, the 4D-IS concept with its ability to capture a full image cube at a single exposure and provide real time data processing offers a new and enhanced capability over present sensors. The 4D-IS uses a reformatter fiber optics to map a 2D image to a linear array that serves as an input slit to an imaging spectrometer. The paper describes three such instruments, a VNIR, a MWIR, and a dual band MW/LWIR. The paper describes the sensors' architecture, mapping, calibration procedures, and remapping the FPA plane into an image cube. Real-time remapping software is used to aid the operator in alignment of the sensor is described. Sample data are shown for rocket motor firings and other events.

© (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.

Nahum Gat ; Gordon Scriven ; John Garman ; Ming De Li and Jingyi Zhang
"Development of four-dimensional imaging spectrometers (4D-IS)", Proc. SPIE 6302, Imaging Spectrometry XI, 63020M (September 01, 2006); doi:10.1117/12.678082; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.678082

Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).



Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.