We report a SPR biosensor based on long-range (LR) and short-range (SR) surface plasmon (SP) modes excited simultaneously on a diffraction grating. Employing the LRSP and SRSP in the grating-coupled SPR sensor offers several interesting features such as extended probe depth of the LRSP and ability to distinguish sensor response caused by bulk and surface refractive index changes. Prototype device based on wavelength interrogation of SPs was developed and be tested in model refractometric experiment. This paper presents results of theoretical analysis and experimental characterization of the sensor. Sensitivity of the laboratory prototype of the sensor agrees well with the theory. The sensor is shown to be able to detect changes in the refractive index as small as 3.5 x 10-6 RIU (refractive index unit).© (2007) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.