Fabrication of Fresnel zone plates for the hard x-ray spectral region combines the challenge of high lateral resolution (~100 nm) with a large thickness requirement for the phase-shifting material (0.5-3 μm). For achieving a high resolution, the initial mask was fabricated by e-beam lithography and gold electroforming. To prevent the collapse of the structures between the developing and electroforming processes, drying was completely eliminated.
Fabrication errors, such as nonuniform gold electroplating and collapse of structures, were analyzed and systematically eliminated. We optimized the exposure and developing processes for 950k and 2200k polymethylmethacrylate of different thicknesses and various adhesion promoters. We discuss the effects of these fabrication steps on the zone plate's resolution and aspect ratio. Fresnel zone plates with 110 nm outermost zone width, 150 μm diameter, and 1.3 μm gold thickness were fabricated. Preliminary evaluation of the FZPs was done by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The FZP focusing performance was characterized at the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory.© (2002) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.