We have designed, developed, and tested a three-dimensional tracking and imaging system that uses a novel optical layout to acquire both en-face confocal images by scanning laser imaging (e.g. scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, SLO) and high-resolution depth sections by optical coherence tomography (OCT). The present application for this system is retinal imaging. The instrument is capable of sequentially collecting OCT and SLO images with the simple articulation of an optic affixed to a flip-mount. In addition, we have extended our mature transverse tracking system for full three-dimensional motion stabilization. The tracking component employs an innovative optical and electronic design that encodes transverse and depth tracking information on a single beam. We have demonstrated en face SLO imaging with a resolution of ~25 μm and depth-resolved OCT imaging with a resolution of ~10 μm. On artificial targets, transverse tracking was robust up to 1 m/s with a bandwidth of ~1 kHz and depth tracking was robust up to a velocity of ~15 cm/sec, a range of ~1 mm, and a bandwidth of a few hundred Hz. The details of the instrument, including optical and electronic design, are discussed. The system has the potential to provide clinicians and researchers with a wide variety of diagnostic information for the early detection and treatment of retinal diseases.© (2005) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.