We are developing a new near-infrared high-resolution (R max = 100,000) and high-sensitive spectrograph WINERED, which is specifically customized for short NIR bands at 0.9-1.35 μm. WINERED employs the following two novel approaches in the optical system: (1) portable design with a ZnSe immersion grating and (2) warm optics without any cold stops. These concepts result in several essential advantages as follows: easy to build, align, and maintain; these result in a short development time and low cost. WINERED employs a VIRGO HgCdTe 2k × 2k array by Raytheon as the detector. We are developing our own array control system that aims at a low readout noise (< 10 e-) with a readout time of about 3 sec. Our goal is to achieve a high sensitivity of R = 100,000 for a NIR spectroscopy of 15 mag and 17 mag point sources with 4 m and 10 m telescopes, respectively. We have just finalized the optical design and produced a prototype electronics, which are described in the companion papers by Yasui et al. and Kondo et al., respectively. We plan to complete this instrument by the end of 2008 and hope to attach it to various 4 to 10 m telescopes as a PI-type instrument.© (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.