An X-ray Talbot interferometer for X-ray phase imaging and tomography was constructed using an amplitude grating of a gold pattern 8 μm in pitch and 30 μm in height developed by X-ray lithography and gold electroplating. The effective area of the grating was 20 mm x 20 mm, and was fully illuminated by synchrotron radiation at beamline 20XU, SPring-8, Japan. Almost whole body of a fish 3 cm in length was observed by phase tomography. Resulting images obtained with 0.07 nm and 0.045 nm X-rays revealed organs with bones in the same view successfully. A preliminary result of the combination with an X-ray imaging microscope is also presented, which was attempted to attain a higher spatial resolution. Finally, prospects of the compatibility with a conventional X-ray generator are discussed for practical applications such as clinical diagnoses.© (2006) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.