Research that began a decade ago in video copy detection has developed into a technology known as "video fingerprinting". Today, video fingerprinting is an essential and enabling tool adopted by the industry for video content identification and management in online video distribution. This paper provides a comprehensive review of video fingerprinting technology and its applications in identifying, tracking, and managing copyrighted content on the Internet. The review includes a survey on video fingerprinting algorithms and some fundamental design considerations, such as robustness, discriminability, and compactness. It also discusses fingerprint matching algorithms, including complexity analysis, and approximation and optimization for fast fingerprint matching. On the application side, it provides an overview of a number of industry-driven applications that rely on video fingerprinting. Examples are given based on real-world systems and workflows to demonstrate applications in detecting and managing copyrighted content, and in monitoring and tracking video distribution on the Internet.© (2009) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.