This paper highlights a series of recent developments in morphological image processing that are of interest for the analysis of remote sensing data. Each selected development is briefly presented while emphasising its usefulness in the context of real applications. The following topics are covered: grey level hit-or-miss transforms applied to the detection of specific man-made structures in panchromatic images, iterative area filtering for multichannel image simplification, constrained connectivity applied to hierarchical image partitioning of very high resolution images, mosaicing of an arbitrary number of images by automatically finding seam lines following salient image structures, and morphological segmentation of binary patterns applied to the characterisation of land cover classes. The paper concludes with challenges ahead and an open question.© (2009) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.