Single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) have a high optical absorbance in the near-infrared (NIR) region. In this special optical window, biological systems are known to be highly transparent. The optical properties of SWNTs provide an opportunity for selective photothermal therapy for cancer treatment. The application of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) in the field of biomedicine is becoming an entirely new and exciting topic. Here, SWNTs are conjugated to integrin αvβ3 monoclonal antibody, which can bind specifically to the surface of the tumor markers. In vitro study revealed that SWNT-PEG-mAb presented a high targeting efficiency on integrin αvβ3-positive cells. Thus, SWNTs, combined with suitable tumor markers, can be used as novel nanomaterials for selective photothermal therapy for cancer treatment.© (2009) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.