The requirements in chemical and biochemical sensing with respect to recognition elements, avoiding non-specific interactions, and high loading of the surface for detection of low concentrations as well as optimized detection systems are discussed. Among the many detection principles the optical techniques are classified. Methods using labeled compounds like Total Internal Reflection Fluorescence (TIRF) and direct optical methods like micro reflectometry or refractometry are discussed in comparison. Reflectometric Interference Spectroscopy (RIfS) is presented as a robust simple method for biosensing. As applications, trace analysis of endocrine disruptors in water, hormones in food, detection of viruses and bacteria in food and clinical diagnostics are discussed.
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Guenter G. Gauglitz
Optical sensing: recognition elements and devices
", Proc. SPIE 8545, Optical Materials and Biomaterials in Security and Defence Systems Technology IX, 85450F (November 19, 2012); doi:10.1117/12.970550; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.970550