Hyperspectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy has provided an imaging tool for
extraction of 3-dimensional volumetric information, as well as chemically-sensitive spectral information. These
techniques have been used in a variety of different domains including biophysics, geology, and material science.
The measured CARS spectrum results from interference between the Raman response of the sample and a non-resonant
background. We have collected four dimensional data sets (three spatial dimensions, plus spectra)
and extracted Raman response from the CARS spectrum using a Kramers-Kronig transformation. However,
the three dimensional images formed by a CARS microscope are distorted by interference, some of which arises
because of the Gouy phase shift. This type of interference comes from the axial position of the Raman resonant
object in the laser focus. We studied how the Gouy phase manifests itself in the spectral domain by investigating
microscopic diamonds and nitrobenzene droplets in a CARS microscope. Through experimental results and
numerical calculation using finite-diference time-domain (FDTD) methods, we were able to demonstrate the
relationship between the spatial configuration of the sample and the CARS spectral response in three dimensional
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Aaron M. Barlow ; Konstantin Popov ; Marco Andreana ; Douglas J. Moffatt ; Andrew Ridsdale, et al.
Spatial-spectral coupling in hyperspectral CARS microscopy image formation
", Proc. SPIE 8589, Three-Dimensional and Multidimensional Microscopy: Image Acquisition and Processing XX, 85890T (February 22, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2004217; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2004217