Transparent conductors (TCs) are becoming extremely popular in many different electronic applications such as touch panels, displays, light emitting devices, light sensors and solar cells. The commonly used electrode in these applications is Indium Tin Oxide (ITO). However, the cost of ITO is increasing rapidly due to the limited supply of Indium. Other issues such as lack of flexibility and cost of the deposition process make ITO less favorable in transparent electrode applications. Graphene has been under exploration as an alternative material for TC applications in the recent years. Graphene based TCs have been shown experimentally to exhibit promising electrical and optical properties. In this paper, the prospects of graphene for transparent conductors in photovoltaics are discussed. The recent advancements in this field as well as the theoretical predictions and possible pathways for improvements are presented. In the process section, we discuss methods to synthesize few-layer graphene (FLG) with high quality in a controllable manner.
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Yasin Khatami ; Wei Liu ; Jiahao Kang and Kaustav Banerjee
Prospects of graphene electrodes in photovoltaics
", Proc. SPIE 8824, Next Generation (Nano) Photonic and Cell Technologies for Solar Energy Conversion IV, 88240T (September 25, 2013); doi:10.1117/12.2026581; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2026581