Full Content is available to subscribers

Subscribe/Learn More  >
Proceedings Article

Fabrication of large-area and low mass critical-angle x-ray transmission gratings

[+] Author Affiliations
Ralf K. Heilmann, Alex R. Bruccoleri, Dong Guan, Mark L. Schattenburg

MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research (United States)

Proc. SPIE 9144, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 91441A (July 25, 2014); doi:10.1117/12.2056829
Text Size: A A A
From Conference Volume 9144

  • Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray
  • Tadayuki Takahashi; Jan-Willem A. den Herder; Mark Bautz
  • Montréal, Quebec, Canada | June 22, 2014

abstract

Soft x-ray spectroscopy of celestial sources with high resolving power R = E/ΔE and large collecting area addresses important science listed in the Astro2010 Decadal Survey New Worlds New Horizons, such as the growth of the large scale structure of the universe and its interaction with active galactic nuclei, the kinematics of galactic outflows, as well as coronal emission from stars and other topics. Numerous studies have shown that a transmission grating spectrometer based on lightweight critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings can deliver R = 3000-5000 and large collecting area with high efficiency and minimal resource requirements, providing spectroscopic figures of merit at least an order of magnitude better than grating spectrometers on Chandra and XMM-Newton, as well as future calorimeter-based missions. The recently developed CAT gratings combine the advantages of transmission gratings (low mass, relaxed figure and alignment tolerances) and blazed reflection gratings (high broad band diffraction efficiency, utilization of higher diffraction orders). Their working principle based on blazing through reflection off the smooth, ultra-high aspect ratio grating bar sidewalls has previously been demonstrated on small samples with x rays. For larger gratings (area greater than 1 inch square) we developed a fabrication process for grating membranes with a hierarchy of integrated low-obscuration supports. The fabrication involves a combination of advanced lithography and highly anisotropic dry and wet etching techniques. We report on the latest fabrication results of free-standing, large-area CAT gratings with polished sidewalls and preliminary x-ray tests. © (2014) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Citation

Ralf K. Heilmann ; Alex R. Bruccoleri ; Dong Guan and Mark L. Schattenburg
" Fabrication of large-area and low mass critical-angle x-ray transmission gratings ", Proc. SPIE 9144, Space Telescopes and Instrumentation 2014: Ultraviolet to Gamma Ray, 91441A (July 25, 2014); doi:10.1117/12.2056829; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2056829


Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).

Figures

Tables

NOTE:
Citing articles are presented as examples only. In non-demo SCM6 implementation, integration with CrossRef’s "Cited By" API will populate this tab (http://www.crossref.org/citedby.html).

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging & repositioning the boxes below.

Related Book Chapters

Topic Collections

Advertisement
  • Don't have an account?
  • Subscribe to the SPIE Digital Library
  • Create a FREE account to sign up for Digital Library content alerts and gain access to institutional subscriptions remotely.
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this proceeding ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Proceeding
Sign in or Create a personal account to Buy this article ($15 for members, $18 for non-members).
Access This Chapter

Access to SPIE eBooks is limited to subscribing institutions and is not available as part of a personal subscription. Print or electronic versions of individual SPIE books may be purchased via SPIE.org.