Recent years have seen great strides in the development of extreme ultraviolet (EUV) laser-produced plasma sources. Field deployed EUV exposure tools are now capable of facilitating advanced technology node development. Nevertheless, as the required manufacturing exposure dose scales, EUV sources must follow suit and provide 500- 1000 W to maintain production throughputs. A free-electron laser (FEL) offers a cost effective, single-source alternative for powering an entire EUV lithography program. FEL integration into semiconductor fab architecture will require both unique facility considerations as well as a paradigm shift in lithography operations. Critical accelerator configurations relating to energy recovery, multi-turn acceleration, and operational mode are discussed from engineering/scientific, cost-minimization, and safety perspectives. Furthermore, the individual components of a FEL (electron injector, RF systems, undulator, etc.) are examined with respect to both design and cost, considering existing technology as well as prospective innovations. Finally, FEL development and deployment roadmaps are presented, focusing on manufacturer deployment for the 5 nm or 3 nm technology nodes.[1-3]
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Erik R. Hosler ; Obert R. Wood ; William A. Barletta ; Pawitter J. S. Mangat and Moshe E. Preil
Considerations for a free-electron laser-based extreme-ultraviolet lithography program
", Proc. SPIE 9422, Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) Lithography VI, 94220D (March 13, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2085538; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2085538