Cardiac valvular stenosis, prolapse and regurgitation are increasingly common conditions, particularly in an elderly population with limited potential for on-pump cardiac surgery. NeoChord©, MitraClip© and numerous stent-based transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) devices provide an alternative to intrusive cardiac operations; performed while the heart is beating, these procedures require surgeons and cardiologists to learn new image-guidance based techniques. Developing these visual aids and protocols is a challenging task that benefits from sophisticated simulators. Existing models lack features needed to simulate off-pump valvular procedures: functional, dynamic valves, apical and vascular access, and user flexibility for different activation patterns such as variable heart rates and rapid pacing. We present a left ventricle phantom with these characteristics. The phantom can be used to simulate valvular repair and replacement procedures with magnetic tracking, augmented reality, fluoroscopy and ultrasound guidance. This tool serves as a platform to develop image-guidance and image processing techniques required for a range of minimally invasive cardiac interventions. The phantom mimics in vivo mitral and aortic valve motion, permitting realistic ultrasound images of these components to be acquired. It also has a physiological realistic left ventricular ejection fraction of 50%. Given its realistic imaging properties and non-biodegradable composition—silicone for tissue, water for blood—the system promises to reduce the number of animal trials required to develop image guidance applications for valvular repair and replacement. The phantom has been used in validation studies for both TAVI image-guidance techniques1, and image-based mitral valve tracking algorithms2.
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Claire Vannelli ; John Moore ; Jonathan McLeod ; Dennis Ceh and Terry Peters
Dynamic heart phantom with functional mitral and aortic valves
", Proc. SPIE 9415, Medical Imaging 2015: Image-Guided Procedures, Robotic Interventions, and Modeling, 941503 (March 18, 2015); doi:10.1117/12.2082277; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2082277