Ultrashort laser pulses represent an ideal starting point for frequency conversion of light to almost any wavelength from the THz to x-rays. High-harmonic upconversion (HHG) is a unique process enabled by the combined strong field laser field and the few-cycle pulse duration of a femtosecond laser pulse. HHG makes it possible to generate coherent light in the spectral region from the vacuum-UV into the x-ray region at sub-nm wavelengths. HHG sources are now finding increasingly diverse application for both science and technology, in topics ranging from basic studies of atomic processes, to materials dynamics revealed through time and angle-resolved photoemission. Furthermore, the coherent nature of the HHG process makes possible unprecedented control over light in a new region of the spectrum, making it possible to, for example, control the polarization state and spectral bandwidth, creating the most complex time-domain waveforms ever measured and characterized. Here we review recent work, as well as efforts at commercial implementation of HHG sources.
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Henry C. Kapteyn
Coherent x-rays driven by ultrashort-pulse lasers: generation, application, and prospects
", Proc. SPIE 9835, Ultrafast Bandgap Photonics, 98350T (May 13, 2016); doi:10.1117/12.2223355; http://dx.doi.org/10.1117/12.2223355