There has been a long tradition of applying biomedical imaging techniques to the examination of historical artefacts, owing to similar demands for non-invasive methods in both fields. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is no exception. We review the achievements on OCT applications to art conservation and archaeology since the publication of the first papers in 2004. Historical artefacts include a much broader range of materials than biological tissues, hence presenting a greater and somewhat different challenge to the field of OCT. New results will be presented to illustrate the various applications of OCT including both qualitative and quantitative analysis.© (2008) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.