Differential luminescence thermometry (DLT) allows non-contact method of measuring temperature by timedifferencing luminescence spectra emitted from the material in study. Here, we present a modification to the DLT technique, termed "two-pixel DLT" (2pixDLT), that combines high temperature and temporal resolutions at the expense of reduced spectral sampling of the luminescence signal. We showcase our technique by demonstrating millisecond/millidegree resolution in time and temperature in heating dynamics of GaAs heterostructure sample. We utilize tnis technique to determine minimum achievable temperature in rare-earth doped fluoride crystal Yb:YLF to be 170K, when excited at 1030nm.© (2009) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.