Improving soldier portable power systems is very important for saving soldiers' lives and having a strategic advantage in a war. This paper reports our work on synthesizing lithium vanadium oxides (Li1+xV3O8) and developing their applications as the cathode (positive) materials in lithium-ion batteries for soldier portable power systems. Two synthesizing methods, solid-state reaction method and sol-gel method, are used in synthesizing lithium vanadium oxides, and the chemical reaction conditions are determined mainly based on thermogravimetric and differential thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analysis. The synthesized lithium vanadium oxides are used as the active positive materials in the cathodes of prototype lithium-ion batteries. By using the new solid-state reaction technique proposed in this paper, lithium vanadium oxides can be synthesized at a lower temperature and in a shorter time, and the synthesized lithium vanadium oxide powders exhibit good crystal structures and good electrochemical properties. In the sol-gel method, different lithium source materials are used, and it is found that lithium nitrate (LiNO3) is better than lithium carbonate (Li2CO3) and lithium hydroxide (LiOH). The lithium vanadium oxides synthesized in this work have high specific charge and discharge capacities, which are helpful for reducing the sizes and weights, or increasing the power capacities, of soldier portable power systems.© (2011) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.