We review recent results on high-power, high-efficiency two-dimensional vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) arrays emitting around 980nm. Selectively oxidized, bottom-emitting single VCSEL emitters with 51% power conversion efficiency were developed as the basic building block of these arrays. More than 230W of continuous-wave (CW) power is demonstrated from a ~5mm x 5mm array chip. In quasi-CW mode, smaller array chips exhibit 100W output power, corresponding to more than 3.5kW/cm2 of power density. High-brightness arrays have also been developed for pumping fiber lasers, delivering a fiber output power of 40W. We show that many of the advantages of low-power single VCSEL devices such as reliability, wavelength stability, low-divergence circular beam, and low-cost manufacturing are preserved for these high-power arrays. VCSELs thus offer an attractive alternative to the dominant edge-emitter technology for many applications requiring compact high-power laser sources.© (2008) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.