In this study, a vibration-based procedure for residual capacity estimation of bridges after damaging earthquake events is proposed. The procedure starts with estimation of collapse capacity of the intact bridge using incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) curves. The collapse capacity is defined as the median intensity level of the earthquakes that cause global or local collapse within the structure. A database of post-earthquake modal properties is created by calculating the analytical modal properties of the bridge after each nonlinear response history analysis performed for generation IDA curves. After the damaging event, experimental modal properties of the bridge are identified from vibration measurements of the bridge. These properties along with the modal properties database are used to find ground motionintensity pairs that can drive nonlinear FE model of the structure to the current damage state of the bridge. The IDA curves corresponding to the damaged FE model of the bridge are subsequently used to estimate amount of loss in collapse capacity of the damaged structure. Estimated loss in capacity of the bridge besides the bridge-site-specific seismic hazard curves are used to update the functionality status of the bridge. Proposed procedure is applied to experimental data from a large-scale shake table test on a quarter-scale model of a short-span reinforced concrete bridge. The bridge was subjected to a series of earthquake ground motions introducing progressive seismic damage to the bridge which finally led to the failure of one of the bents. Residual collapse capacity and functionality status of the bridge are updated at different stages of the experiment using the proposed procedure.© (2011) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.