Three-dimensional nanostructures can be fabricated by the glancing angle deposition technique. By rotating the substrate in both polar and azimuthal directions, one can fabricate desired nanostructures, such as nano-rod arrays with different shapes, nano-spring arrays, and even multilayer nanostructures. This method offers a fully three-dimensional control of the nanostructure with additional capability of self-alignment. There is almost no limitation on materials that can be fabricated into desired nanostructures. In this presentation, we will discuss the current status of the glancing angle deposition technology, its potential applications, and its future challenges.© (2003) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.