High-resolution CT, three-dimensional (3D) methods for nodule volumetry have been introduced, with the hope that such methods will be more accurate and consistent than currently used planar measures of size. However, the error associated with volume estimation methods still needs to be quantified. Volume estimation error is multi-faceted in the sense that it is impacted by characteristics of the patient, the software tool and the CT system. The overall goal of this research is to quantify the various sources of measurement error and, when possible, minimize their effects. In the current study, we estimated nodule volume from ten repeat scans of an anthropomorphic phantom containing two synthetic spherical lung nodules (diameters: 5 and 10 mm; density: -630 HU), using a 16-slice Philips CT with 20, 50, 100 and 200 mAs exposures and 0.8 and 3.0 mm slice thicknesses. True volume was estimated from an average of diameter measurements, made using digital calipers. We report variance and bias results for volume measurements as a function of slice thickness, nodule diameter, and X-ray exposure.© (2008) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.