In this paper the principles of polarization optical time domain reflectometry and features of developed POTDR prototype model are described. The approbation of methods for analysis of POTDR trace on experimental setup was carried out. The results of field inspection of fiber optical communication lines including measurements of chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion are represented. Specificities of localization of fiber section with high level of polarization mode dispersion using PODTR are noted.© (2010) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.