We present a first evaluation of the interest of the degree of polarization (DOP) imaging technique for early detection of cervical dysplasia. A set of ten ex vivo samples of cervix have been examined, just after surgical extraction, with an DOP imaging system comprising two linear polarizers, a liquid crystal based polarization rotator, and fast CCD camera. Routine histological examination revealed that for all samples but one, dysplasia was present only in the inner part of the cervix, which cannot be imaged with our current setup. On the other hand, the only sample exhibiting dysplasia in its outer region did show nonzero DOP with, however, a somewhat loose correlation between the DOP and the histological mapping of the dysplasia.© (2004) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.