For hyperspectral remote sensing, the physics-based transformation connecting two multivariate sets of spectral radiance data of the same scene collected at two disparate times is approximately linear (plus an offset). Generally, the covariance structures of two such data sets provide partial information about any linear transformation connecting them. The remaining unknown degrees of freedom of the transformation must be deduced from other statistics, or from a knowledge of the underlying phenomenology. Among all the possible transformations consistent with measured pairs of hyperspectral covariance structures, a particularly simple and accurate one has been found. This "rotation free" flavor of "Covariance Equalization" (CE) has led to a simplified signal processing architecture that has been implemented in a real time VNIR hyperspectral target detection system. This paper describes that architecture, presents detection performance results, and introduces a new algorithm for long-interval change detection, Matched Change Detection.© (2004) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.