Spectral-Domain Polarization-Sensitive Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-PS-OCT) is a technique developed to measure the thickness and birefringence of the nerve fiber layer in vivo as a tool for the early diagnosis of glaucoma. A clinical SD-PS-OCT system was developed and scans were made around the optic nerve head (ONH) using ten concentric circles of increasing diameter. One healthy volunteer was imaged. Retinal nerve fiber layer thickness and birefringence information was extracted from the data. Polarization-sensitive OCT images were acquired at video rate (29 frames per second (fps), 1000 A-lines / frame) and at 7 fps (1000 A-lines / frame). The last setting improved the signal to noise ratio by approximately 6 dB. Birefringence measurements on the healthy volunteer gave similar results as earlier reported values that were obtained with a time-domain setup. The measurement time was reduced from more than a minute to less than a second.© (2005) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.