Visually evoked hemodynamic responses and potentials were simultaneously measured using a 16-channel optical imaging instrument and a 60-channel electroencephalography instrument during normo-, hypo- and hypercapnia from three subjects. Flashing and pattern-reversed checkerboard stimuli were used. The study protocol included two counterbalanced measurements during both normo- and hypocapnia and normo- and hypercapnia. Hypocapnia was produced by controlled hyperventilation and hypercapnia by breathing carbon dioxide enriched air. Near-infrared imaging was also used to monitor the concentration changes of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin due to hypo- and hypercapnia. Hemodynamic responses and evoked potentials were successfully detected for each subject above the visual cortex. The latencies of the hemodynamic responses during hypocapnia were shorter whereas during hypercapnia they were longer when compared to the latencies during normocapnia. Hypocapnia tended to decrease the latencies of visually evoked potentials compared to those during normocapnia while hypercapnia did not show any consistent effect to the potentials. The developed measurement setup and the study protocol provide the opportunity to investigate the neurovascular coupling and the links between the baseline level of blood flow, electrical activity and hemodynamic responses in the human brain.© (2005) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.