We measure, for the first time, the gain compression coefficient and above-threshold linewidth enhancement factor (alpha parameter) in quantum dot (QD) distributed feedback lasers (DFB) by time-resolved-chirp (TRC) characterization. The alpha parameter is measured to be 2.6 at threshold and increases to 8 when the output power of the QD DFB is increased to 3 mW. The dependence of the above-threshold alpha parameter on the optical power is found to be stronger than the optical gain compression effect alone can predict. The inhomogeneous gain broadening, gain saturation at the ground states and carrier filling in the excited states in QDs are proposed to explain the results.© (2005) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.