We have investigated the application of a laser Doppler profile sensor for in-process shape and roundness measurements at turning machines. This sensor is an extension of a conventional laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV), where two interference fringe systems with contrary fringe spacing gradients are generated inside the same measuring volume using wavelength division multiplexing. Scattering objects passing the measuring volume generate scattered light signals with two different Doppler frequencies, from which the velocity as well as the position of the objects can be determined via a proper calibration function. Hence, the radius and the tangential velocity and, thus, the shape of rotating work pieces and components, e.g. turbine blades or turning parts, can be measured absolutely and with only one single sensor. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional measurements of shape, excentricity, and roundness on quickly rotating cylinders inside a turning machine are presented. The results are compared with tactile measurements conducted with a coordinate measuring machine.© (2005) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.