In this contribution, we analyze the synchronization properties of two chaotic optical field generated by two VCSELs in presence of a saturable absorber. The vectorial nature of the chaotic field requires a continuous control scheme to achieve a high-quality synchronization between the two sources. We proposed a novel encoding scheme, exploiting a two contact VCSEL structure, which allows an easy and direct modulation of the transmitter. The added degree of freedom constituted by the chaos in polarization allows a reduction of the probability error (or enhancement of the transmission capacity) at the receiver.© (2002) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.