We have experimentally demonstrated single-mode light-wave transmission and tunable waveguiding characteristics in photonic crystal (PC) waveguides constructed on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) substrate as is most likely to be used for the a large scale integration of photonic circuits. Although off-plane diffractive leakage has been a serious problem in SOI-PC waveguides, we have overcome this problem in our narrow line-defect and phase-shifted-hole line-defect waveguide structures. These devices were developed through intensive theoretical studies on PC line-defect waveguieds. We have also demonstrated low-loss mode profile converter that will enable efficient connection between conventional silica-based waveguides and PC line-defect waveguides. The converter features an inversely-tapered silicon wire waveguide with an ultra-thin tip constructed on an SOI substrate. In our experiments, this converter proved capable of coupling loss as low as 0.5dB per conversion. These SOI-based devices represent an important step towards practical large-scale integrated photonic crystal circuits.© (2002) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.