The wavefront reflected from extreme UV lithography mirror and mask surfaces can contain a non-negligible amount of phase variation due to roughness of the mirror surface and variations in multilayer thin-film coatings. We examine the characteristics of image and pattern formation as a function of phase variations originating at the mask surface and at condenser mirrors. A theoretical development and a Monte- Carlo simulation are used to show relationships between statistics of the phase variations and the mask pattern, coherence factor, and numerical aperture of the projection camera. Results indicate that it is possible to produce nearly 1 percent line-edge roughness in a photoresist pattern from moderate values of phase variations.© (1999) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.