Medical optical imaging (MOI) and spectroscopy (MOS) use light emitted into opaque tissues in order to determine the interior structure and chemical content. These optical techniques have been developed in an attempt to prospectively identify impending brain injuries before they become irreversible, thus allowing injury to be avoided or minimized. Optical imaging and spectroscopy center around the simple idea that light passes through the body in small amounts, and emerges bearing clues about tissues through which it passed. Images can be reconstructed from such data, and this is the basis of optical tomography. We have used a time-of-flight system reported earlier to monitor oxygenation and image hemorrahage in neonatal brain. This chapter summarizes our early results.© (1995) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.