We review extensive data on measured subsurface damage and surface roughness resulting from lapping (loose abrasive grinding under fixed nominal pressure) and deterministic microgrinding (bound abrasive grinding under fixed nominal infeed) of commercial optical glasses with a large range of abrasive sizes. Subsurface damage is measured with the dimple method and related techniques. Surface roughness is measured with white light interferometry. Our results show that subsurface damage and its statistical scatter can both be estimated directly from the non-contact measurement of peak- valley surface roughness.© (1999) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.