We investigate the problem of identifying pixels in pairs of co-registered images that correspond to real changes on the ground. Changes that are due to environmental differences (illumination, atmospheric distortion, etc.) or sensor differences (focus, contrast, etc.) will be widespread throughout the image, and the aim is to avoid these changes in favor of changes that occur in only one or a few pixels. Formal outlier detection schemes (such as the one-class support vector machine) can identify rare occurrences, but will be confounded by pixels that are "equally rare" in both images: they may be anomalous, but they are not changes. We describe a resampling scheme we have developed that formally addresses both of these issues, and reduces the problem to a binary classification, a problem for which a large variety of machine learning tools have been developed. In principle, the effects of misregistration will manifest themselves as pervasive changes, and our method will be robust against them - but in practice, misregistration remains a serious issue.© (2007) COPYRIGHT SPIE--The International Society for Optical Engineering. Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.